The Nobel Prizes are annual international awards bestowed by Scandinavian committees in recognition of cultural and scientific advances. The will of the Swedish chemist Alfred Nobel, the inventor of dynamite established the prices in 1985.

The prizes in Physics, Chemistry, Physiology or Medicine, Literature and Peace were first awarded' in 1901. The The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economics Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel was instituted by Sveriges Riksbank in 1968 and was first awarded in 1969. Although technically not a Nobel Prize, its announcements and presentations are made along with the other prizes, with the exception of the Peace prize which is awarded in Oslo, Norway.

Nobel Prize 2010 Winners

The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences awards the Nobel Prize in Physics, Chemistry and the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences. The Nobel Assembly at Karoliska Institute awards the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. The Swedish Academy grants the Nobel Prize in Literature. The Nobel Peace prize is not awarded by a Swedish organization but by the Norwegian Nobel Committee.

The Nobel Prize in Medicine 2010

The Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine has been awarded to Robert G. Edwards, an English biologist who with a physician colleague, Dr. Patrick Steptoe, developed the in vitro fertilization procedure for treating human infertility. Since the birth of the first test tube baby, Louise Brown, on July 25, 1978, some four million babies worldwide have been conceived by mixing eggs and sperm outside the body and returning the embryo to the womb to resume the normal development. The procedure overcomes many previously untreatable causes of infertility and is used in 3 percent of all live births in developed countries.

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2010

A pair of Russia-born physicists working at the University of Manchester in England have won the 2010 Nobel Prize in Physics for investigating the remarkable properties of ultra-thin carbon flakes known as graphene, the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences said. The physicists are Andre Geim, 51, and Konstantin Novoselov, 36. They will split the prize of about $1.4 million. Graphene is a form of carbon in which the atoms are arranged in a flat hexagon lattice like microscopic chicken wire, a single atom thick. It is not only the thinnest material in the world, but also one of the strongest and hardest.

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2010

Three scientists shared this year's Nobel Prize in Chemistry for developing techniques to synthesize complex carbon molecules that have had an enormous impact on the manufacture of medicines and other products, the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences said. The winners are Richard F. Heck, 79, a retired University of Delaware professor now living in the Philippines; Ei-ichi Negishi, 75, a chemistry professor at Purdue University; and Akira Suzuki, 80, a professor at Hokkaido University in Sapporo, Japan.

The Nobel Prize in Literature 2010

Peruvian Mario Vargas L1osa, one of the most acclaimed writers in the Spanish-speaking world who once ran for president in his homeland, won the 2010 Nobel Prize in literature on October 7. The Swedish Academy said it honoured the 74-year-old author "for his cartography of structures of power and his trenchant images of the individual's resistance, revolt and defeat."

The Nobel Prize in Peace 2010

Liu Xiaobo, an impassioned literary critic, political essayist and democracy advocate repeatedly jailed by the Chinese government for his writings; won the 2010 Nobel Peace Prize on October 8 in recognition of "his long and nonviolent struggle for fundamental human rights in China." Mr. Liu, 54, perhaps China's best known dissident, is currently serving an 11-year term on subversion charges. Mr. Liu is the first Chinese citizen to win the Peace Prize and one of three laureates to have received it while in prison.

The Nobel Prize in Economics 2010

Peter A. Diamond, a nominee for a Federal Reserve Board position, and two other economists were awarded the 2010 Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Science on October 11 for their work on markets where buyers and sellers have difficulty finding each other. The work of the winners, Professor Diamond of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dale T. Mortensen of Northwestern University and Christopher A. Pissarides of the London School of Economics, is best known for its applications to the job market.