The following are the basic measurements of land used in Punjab and Haryana in ascending order.
  1. one 'karam' = 5.5 feet
  2. one 'marla' = 9 square karams (272.25 square feet OR 30.25 square yards)
  3. one 'kanaal' = 20 marlas (5,445 square feet)
  4. one 'killa' = 8 kanaals (43,560 square feet = 1 acre)
  5. one 'bigha' = 2 kanaals (10,890 square feet = 1210 square yards)
  6. one 'marabba' = 25 killas (1,089,000 square feet = 25 acres)
A killa is measured rectangularly, reckoned as an area 36 karams (198 feet) x 40 karams (220 feet) (43,560 square feet).

Kothis are measured in marlas and kanaals. Most are two to four kanaals but the big ones can be anything from four to six kanaals.

A couple of older measures:

one biswa = 15 square karams.
12 biswas = 1 kanaal = 625 square yards.
one bigha = 20 biswas = 1008 square yards = 842.68 square meter.

i) In the areas consolidated on the basis of the standard measure of 66 inches i.e. Karam or Gatha:
  1. 1 Square Karam or Sarsahi 3.3611111 square yards.
  2. 9 Sarsahis or 1 Marla 30.249999 square yards say 30.25 square yards.
  3. 20 Marlas or 1 Kanal 604.99996 square yards say 605 square yards.
  4. 160 Marlas or 8 Kanals 4839.99998 square yards (say 4840 square yards i.e. 1 acre)
(ii) In the areas consolidated on the basis of the local measure and the non-consolidated areas of Amritsar, Gurdaspur, (except Shahpur Hill Circle and Chak Andar in Pathankot tehsil), Ferozepur (except Fazilka) and the erstwhile princely State of Faridkot. Also applicable for Lahore (Pakistan):
  1. 1 Karam = 60 inches.
  2. 1 Square Karam or Sarsahi = 2.777777 square yards.
  3. 9 Sarsahis or 1 Marla = 24.999999 square yards say 25 square yards.
  4. 20 Marlas or 1 Kanal = 499.9999 square yards say 500 square yards.
  5. 193.60 Marlas = 9 Kanals 1 Acre or 4840 square yards 13 marlas 5 sarsahis.
(iii) In the areas consolidated on the basis of the local measure and the non-consolidated areas of Hoshiarpur, Jalandhar, Anandpur Sahib (Ropar) and the Shahpur hill Circle in Gurdaspur District:
  1. 1 Karam = 57.5 inches.
  2. 1 Square Karam or Sarsahi = 2.5511188 square yards.
  3. 9 Sarsahis or 1 Marla = 22.960069 square yards say 22.96 square yards
  4. 20 Marlas or 1 Kanal = 459.20138 square yards say 459 square yards.
  5. 210.80 Marlas = 10 Kanals I Acre or 4840 square yards. 10 marlas 7 sarsahis.
(iv) In the area consolidated on the basis of the local measure and the non-consolidated areas of the erstwhile princely State of Kapurthala:
  1. 1 Karam = 54 inches.
  2. 1 Square Karam or Sarsahi = 2.25 square yards.
  3. 9 Sarsahis or 1 Marla = 20.25 square yards
  4. 20 Marlas or 1 Kanal = 405 square yards.
  5. 239 Marlas = 11 Kanals 1 Acre or 4840 square yards 19 marlas.
1 Karam or Gatha x 1 Karam or Gatha
1 Square Karam or Biswansi 20 Biswansis
1 Biswa 20 Biswa 1 Bigha