The world's leading causes of death in 2001 were heart disease and stroke, according to a new study on global health.

Researcher Alan Lopez, PhD, and colleagues combed through thousands of data sources from all over the globe on 136 diseases and injuries in 2001.

Lopez works in Brisbane, Australia at the University of Queensland's School of Population Health. He and his colleagues published the results in The Lancet. Among their findings:

Slightly more than 56 million people died in 2001. Those deaths included 10.6 million children, almost all of whom (99%) lived in low-income and middle-income countries. More than half of the children died from 5 preventable or treatable conditions:

  • Respiratory infections
  • Measles
  • Diarrhea
  • Malaria
  • HIV/AIDS

HIV/AIDS in Africa and setbacks in health for the former Soviet Union offset gains against other diseases. The study shows that one in three deaths was due to communicable diseases, nutritional deficiencies, and health problems in pregnant women, new mothers, fetuses, or newborns.

Top 10 Causes of Death

Heart disease and stroke were the leading causes of death in 2001, regardless of countries' incomes, the study shows. However, other leading causes of death differed depending on countries' incomes. Here is the list for high-income countries:

  1. Heart disease
  2. Stroke
  3. Lung cancer
  4. Lower respiratory infections
  5. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
  6. Colon and rectum cancers
  7. Alzheimer's disease and other dementias
  8. Type 2 diabetes
  9. Breast cancer
  10. Stomach cancer

Here is the list for low- and middle-income countries:

  1. Heart disease
  2. Stroke
  3. Lower respiratory infections
  4. HIV/AIDS
  5. Fetus/newborn (perinatal) conditions
  6. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
  7. Diarrhea
  8. Tuberculosis
  9. Malaria
  10. Road traffic accidents

Sources: Lopez, A. The Lancet, May 27, 2006; vol 367: pp 1747-1757. News release, The Lancet.