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What defence mechanisms are commonly employed by butterflies?

Some butterflies have physical defences. This behavior is common among caterpillars in temperate countries. An example of such a caterpillar is the Nymphalis. If somebody disturbs such caterpillars, they react in unison by lifting their heads up and thrashing them from side to side display anger. This method is useful in scaring smaller predators.

Spines are also an important part of butterflies’ bodies, that they use to defend themselves from other wasps and flies. Aposematism or denoting coloration or markings that serve to warn the predators is another good way to frighten away enemies.

The common Mormon of India has female morphs which imitate the unpalatable red-bodied swallowtails, the common rose, and the crimson rose.

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